Top Questions Security Teams Ask about Copilot for M365

June 27, 2024
Vectra AI Product Team
Top Questions Security Teams Ask about Copilot for M365

Like many AI-based digital tools, Copilot for Microsoft 365(M365) promises enterprises new opportunities for enhanced productivity, accuracy, and efficiency with their Microsoft suite of products.

Suppose you’re among those enterprises that have adopted Copilot for M365 since its debut on November 1, 2023. In that case, you’re probably already seeing greater productivity in your staff across their Microsoft tools and workflows.

Unfortunately, Copilot for M365 has great potential to be used against your enterprise’s cyber defenses in ways that you can’t afford to ignore. With only nine months on the market, organizations already see attackers abuse Copilot with living-off-the-land techniques, providing attackers deep, accelerated access to enterprise networks and critical data.

At Vectra AI, we see about a 40% uptake rate for Copilot M365 among those enterprises that rely on us to monitor their identities. We’re also getting deluged with questions from customers and peers alike concerning both the full capabilities of Copilot and the threats it poses to enterprise security. This post addresses these and other top concerns we’re getting from security teams and how to see and stop Copilot-based attacks dead in their tracks.  

Let’s break it down into 5 big questions...

1.   What is Copilot for Microsoft 365?

At a high level, Copilot for Microsoft 365 is an AI enhancement to the entire suite of Microsoft apps. It’s a chatbot developed by Microsoft that combines generative AI and LLM for improved capabilities within the Microsoft Office suite of productivity tools. It allows you to access information across all Microsoft surfaces, such as Word, Sharepoint, Teams, email, and so forth, with a single chat interface to talk with and ask questions. It also automates mundane tasks and offers useful operational insights and data analysis to streamline workloads.

Sidenote: There are different Copilot products within the Microsoft portfolio, such as Copilot for Security, which has a different layer of uses and capabilities than Copilot for M365 that’s used for standard enterprise, which is the version we’re focusing on in this post. Both Copilot products have similar objectives to increase speed, accuracy, and productivity.

2.   What are the current capabilities of Copilot for M365?

Copilot for M365 provides a unified search capability for all docs in the various Microsoft solution suites. It applies its Gen-AI-driven reach and power to enhance your productivity in Outlook, Sharepoint, OneDrive, Excel, Fourpoint, Word, email, Teams, etc., with some quite useful features such as:

  • Fast document and deck generation leveraging Chat to create new or use existing formats
  • Insights on document structure, content, data flows, charts, and spreadsheets
  • Quickly identifying data in one application that’s applicable in another
  • Data contextualization and content summarization in email

However, according to our research, from an attacker’s point of view, once they’ve compromised a Copilot-enabled user account and accessed the chatbot interface, these same features work to the attacker’s advantage to an extremely high degree. Watch the video below for coverage on the topic in greater detail.

So, what will Copilot for M365 let an attacker do? 

Once a Copilot-enabled account is compromised, the attacker can search all of the connected surfaces at the same time instead of having to search through each one individually. That lets an attacker quickly gain access to credentials to move laterally through your environment using live-off-the-land techniques at the speed of AI. In short, attackers can launch a Gen-AI-driven attack by using the power of enterprise-level AI against the enterprise itself.

For example, say that the attacker prompted a search for keywords such as “acquisition” or “sensitive.” The Copilot for M365 will search the entire Microsoft suite of tools and solutions for those keywords and return all emails and documents with those keywords in the names. But for some applications, such as Doc, Fourpoint, and Textfile, it will also look into the documents themselves for the keywords, so it’s context-aware for those specific document types. But if the document is a PDF or a Spreadsheet, Copilot for M365 will not look inside those types of documents. 

Or, if an attacker is looking for “SSNs” (Social Security Numbers) for example, and SSNs are included within documents, but aren’t part of the name of the documents(s), Copilot for M365 will let the attacker know that a document has been found with an SSN within it. That capability isn’t new; a Sharepoint search would yield the same result. The difference is that the Sharepoint search is automatically included in the unified search capability of Copilot for M365 that covers all Microsoft surfaces, with the effect of accelerating the attack.

But there are also nuances to Copilot for M365’s capabilities in this area... 

Specifically, for email, Copilot for M365 only looks at the subject line, not at the body or any attachments, so it’s not as powerful as the search feature that’s already there within your mailbox. Nor can Copilot for M365 open emails containing keywords, create links, or do any action regarding an email document, but it will point to a document and provide instructions on how to perform those actions.

For Teams, Copilot for M365 provides direct access to Chat, with an interface link to the chat where conversations with the keywords are found. That feature is quick and works very well.

For OneNote, Microsoft claims you can search Copilot for M365 for keywords, but we didn’t find that capability or get any results from OneNote returned by Copilot that Microsoft claims it will provide, so we believe the capability is limited in that area.

But Copilot for M365 will download docs or create a link to share the document externally, which can be done quickly and easily. Again, it can’t take any action on any document, but it can point to a document. For example, it can’t take action on PowerPoint, consolidate documents, create emails, or send them out, but as noted above, it will provide instructions on how to perform those tasks.

3.How might an adversary or attacker use and/or abuse copilot for M365?

First, it’s critical to understand that Copilot for M365 gives the attacker the same advantages that it gives the legitimate enterprise user: a Gen-AI-driven ability to access documents by keywords or other criteria at the speed of AI. This capability greatly accelerates the reconnaissance phase of an attack. Attackers will be able to find credentials, move laterally, and access sensitive information much quicker than before when they had to search each surface individually. Essentially, there’s no new capability per se, except the speed in the attacker’s ability to find and abuse credentials and access critical data.

In short, Copilot for M365 removes latency in attacks, which means attackers gain deeper access faster. That gives attackers an even greater advantage in terms of speed and lateral movement throughout the environment in a live-off-the-land attack scenario. Given the typical latency that defenders already have in detecting and responding to an attack, abusing Copilot for M365 stacks the odds even higher in attackers’ favor.

Are there protections in place in Copilot for M365 that may prohibit or at least slow down an attacker’s progress?

The answer is, “sort of, but not really.”

Some obvious searches are prohibited by Copilot for M365. For example, asking for passwords or credentials will be denied. If an attacker prompts Copilot by saying, “Tell me if I shared any password in the last 10 days,” it will deny the request. 

But there are simple ways around that. If the attacker asks, “Are passwords in my last 50 chats?” Copilot for M365 will answer that prompt. There are other simple bypass techniques as well that we tested, such as simply asking for secrets, keys, numbers, roadmaps, patents, etc. We never found any restrictions by Copilot on these searches throughout the environment. Even when we asked Copilot, “Who is the person I mostly communicate with?” Or, “Name the ten people I most communicate with within the company,” Copilot delivered answers.

Copilot for M365 poses a high risk for spear phishing

Gathering information on employee interaction and communication habits enables attackers to identify which coworkers are most vulnerable to spear phishing attacks. Attackers can determine which colleagues are most likely to answer you and/or your request because of their comfort and familiarity with the person the attacker is pretending to be. So, being the savvy, clever threat actors that they are, they know Copilot for M365 can be a great help in engineering internal spear phishing attacks.

From that internal perspective, trying to decide which questions or prompts can be asked of Copilot and which cannot, can quickly turn into a policy and rule-writing nightmare. The tendency in such cases is to create too many rules, which degrades the power and speed of Copilot for M365 down to a maintenance mode level, which can defeat its purpose and effectiveness. 

In light of the broad abuses that Copilot for M365 is currently subject to, what remedies are available to security teams?

4.   What level of visibility does the SOC have into Copilot for M365 attacks?

Unfortunately, without an AI-driven behavioral analysis capability, SOC teams don’t have much visibility into Copilot-based attacks. Some activities are recorded as part of the O365 management activity API, and every Copilot interaction will have an event created in the audit log of the Microsoft 365 management activity API, but that information is limited. You may see the IP address of the requester, the username of who did it, and the time of the inquiry, and with Sharepoint only, you’ll have the location of the resources that have been returned. That’s it.

For example, if you made a prompt asking Copilot to tell you where to find credentials across Teams, email, and Sharepoint, neither Teams nor email will deliver what has been returned, only Sharepoint will have that info in the logs. That’s the basic level of visibility that SOC teams have. You know that someone had an interaction, but you don’t know what was asked, only what was returned with Sharepoint, which of course, is a big concern.

From a SOC team’s point of view, this security limitation allows attackers to move even faster in reconnaissance than before, with compromised identities and escalated privileges that let them quickly get to the sensitive data that they’re after. In short, Copilot speeds up the entire attack process tremendously.

5.   How does Vectra’s AI-driven behavioral analysis stop Copilot-enhanced AI-driven attacks?

Once an attacker is using your Copilot for M365 enterprise-level AI against you with live-off-the-land techniques, without an AI-driven detection and response capability, your SOC team has little chance of discovering the breach, much less stopping it.  

The reason why is simple but formidable. You can search and find out the prompt of every user in Copliot for M365, and if someone asks for something they shouldn’t have, the information is in there. The problem is that the information is not in the log, but is stored in the user mailbox. You can use e-discovery to extract information from the user mailbox, but it’s tedious and time-consuming to do so, making the investigation of a potential breach a slow and labor-intensive process, which adds even more latency to your detection and response process.

The best and likely only way to defend your enterprise against the speed of a Gen AI-driven attack in Copilot for M365 is to match that AI-driven attack with the speed of AI-driven behavioral analytics. Fortunately, Vectra AI lives exclusively in the AI universe. In the podcast video above you can see just where our AI-driven behavioral analysis lets your team see AI-driven attacks in real-time and stop them in real-time, before damage is done.

You can also see what a scenario looks like where the Vectra AI Platform is in place once an attacker has gained access to your Copilot for M365 account. You’ll see how Copilot is being used in the enterprise against the enterprise, with searches for sensitive data, secret passwords, and other information that indicate an attempt to dig deeper into the enterprise and instill persistence. The Vectra AI platform allows you to quickly see and recognize an attack and respond authoritatively to it with decisive action, such as locking down the compromised account and identity threat, regardless of where it is, cloud, network, or wherever.

In our Discover functionality, which we’ve recently upgraded, you can see who’s using Copilot even before the user gets compromised. This allows you to know the normal behaviors of your Copilot users, who the most frequent users are, and what data they typically interact with. All these factors provide you a clear understanding of the Copilot surface, so you’re positioned to recognize any identity that’s facing a threat, quickly recognize an abused identity so you see the attack in real-time, and then stop that attack before any damage occurs.

Further, the unique power of Vectra AI lets you see the entire scope of activity for every identity, wherever they are, whether they’re on Copilot, Azure AD, or AWS. Wherever an identity may be or what it’s doing, the Vectra AI Platform sees all of it. It analyzes identity behavior, identifies potentially anomalous actions, and clearly prioritizes the most urgent potential threats. From our point of view, Copilot is just one more area where attackers will try to live off the land to gain access to your critical data, so ultimately, it’s just one more type of identity activity that Vectra AI can help you respond to quickly and effectively.

This kind of identity defense amply demonstrates the necessity and high-value functionality of Vectra’s three pillars of detection and response, namely, coverage, clarity, and control.

Regarding the functionality of coverage, AI-driven detection identifies suspicious access to Copilot, as well as data discovery and jailbreak attempts. In terms of identity and suspicious behaviors, Vectra AI brings unrivaled coverage to your SOC team.

In terms of clarity, or what we call Attack Signal Intelligence, all of the coverage integrates cleanly with the Vectra AI Platform as it relates to identity and prioritization. AI-driven prioritization and filtering of benign behaviors are all included in this functionality, letting your team know exactly where they need to focus their response.

For control, the platform audits Copilot usage and then leverages an integrated response and lockdown functionality as well as metadata investigation, so you can respond appropriately to the most urgent threat as quickly as possible.

To protect your enterprise from Copilot abuse and identity attacks, visit Vectra.ai or WATCH THE DEMO.

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